Energy saving and improving energy efficiency

energy saving and energy efficiency

The amount of energy consumed by modern society is increasing every day. Improving energy efficiency in multi-apartment buildings (multi-apartment buildings) is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The maximum energy saving effect can be achieved through the joint efforts of the state, management companies and homeowners.

What is energy efficiency and energy saving

Current trends in energy conservation are promoting innovation in energy conservation. According to Federal Law no. 261, signed November 23, 2009, energy efficiency is the ratio of the benefits derived from the use of resources to the costs required to obtain them.

Energy saving is a set of measures, the purpose of which is the efficiency and economy of the use of energy resources. The main energy efficiency indicators of multi-apartment residential buildings must meet the requirements of applicable laws in this area.

Energy efficiency legislation for residential buildings

Actions to improve energy efficiency in buildings are governed by the following regulations:

  1. Order of the Ministry of Economic Development no. 61 of 17 February 2010, which approved a rough sequence of actions aimed at improving energy efficiency
  2. Order of the Ministry of Construction no. 98, dated 15 February 2017, which adopted a list of actions to promote energy saving and more efficient use of resources in apartment buildings

These commands set out a list of actions to improve energy efficiency in an apartment building. Order No. 98 specifies the principle of assigning energy efficiency classes to residential buildings. It determines the rationality of spending the resources required for the maintenance of the facility. Taken together, the two documents make it possible to define a list of energy saving measures, their distribution according to the level of cost and type of resources.

Energy saving measures, according to the order of the Ministry of Construction no. 98

The energy saving program recommended by the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Utilities can be divided according to the types of resources used.

The result of the activities performed in the first place should give the greatest effect. When all the priority requirements for energy efficiency in the home are met, the second phase of activities is carried out. Their implementation is also very important. The order of activities is determined for technical and financial reasons.

It is proposed to implement the following measures to improve energy efficiency in buildings.

Heating and hot water supply system

First of all, the following activities are performed in the hot and cold water supply system:

  • installation of balancing valves
  • heating system balancing
  • heated heating pipes
  • installation of meters for measuring hot water consumption and heat in the house and in each apartment

Second, they perform:

  • installing an individual heating point
  • installing the heat exchanger
  • install a system designed to automatically control heating and hot water
  • replacement pipes
  • armature replacement
  • thermal insulation of pipes in basements and attics, as well as in common areas
  • installation of thermostatic valves in heating appliances
  • installing shut-off valves
  • installation and modernization of pumps designed to ensure water recycling in hot water supply systems

Power supply and lighting system

First of all they perform:

  • installation of electricity meters for houses and apartments
  • installation of energy saving lamps in places intended for general use

Second, they perform:

  • set the dimming to automatic mode
  • replacement of electric motors; installing disks to ensure frequency control

Doors, windows, roofs and walls

First of all they perform:

  • closing, isolating and closing entrance doors
  • installation of doors and shock absorbers in basements and attics; closing and closing windows located in common areas

Second, they perform:

  • installing heat-reflecting films on windows
  • installing low-emission glass on roadways
  • replacing old windows and doors with energy efficient ones
  • basement and attic floor and wall insulation
  • roof insulation
  • closing nodes between panels
  • wall insulation
  • polishing loggias and balconies
  • reduction of losses in the air conditioning and ventilation system due to the installation of air shock absorbers

Prepare an energy saving program. Estimating costs and savings

Energy Saving Program is a document based on the requirements of Article 25 of Federal Law no. 261, which describes the principles of energy conservation and energy efficiency. The energy saving program plan includes the following steps:

  • object data collection
  • express inspection of the building
  • energy audit to determine available potential and energy saving reserves
  • forming a list of events in order to increase the energy consumption class of MKD
  • determine the costs required to implement the plan
  • calculation of estimated savings in natural and monetary terms
  • calculation of the repayment period of planned energy saving measures
  • choice of funding sources
  • selection of persons responsible for the implementation of measures aimed at energy consumption in a way of saving
  • development of actions for the implementation of planned activities
  • completion, registration and approval of the energy saving program

Home energy efficiency improvement program:

  • takes into account the individual characteristics of each MKD
  • meets specific energy conservation needs
  • sets out a specific plan to achieve the required level of energy efficiency
  • contains methods to rationally reduce energy costs and increase energy efficiency
  • takes into account available finances
  • makes the most of the building's energy potential

The main result of the implementation of the developed program is the reduction of costs and energy consumption. This allows savings to be directed to areas with higher activity priority. The return of activities performed can be determined by one using the calculation:

  • simple payback period
  • discounted return period
  • benefit report
  • Internal Rate of Return
  • net present value
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Thermal imaging survey allows you to assess the energy efficiency class of a building and determine how efficient it is at consuming heat and electricity in your home. One such study is included in the energy audit complex. Based on the results obtained, an energy certificate for MKD is issued.

Improving the energy efficiency of buildings by apartment owners

Apartment owners can also improve energy efficiency in buildings. This will lead to energy savings, therefore, the cost of utility bills will be reduced. For this it is recommended:

  • insulate doors and window openings
  • install a second front door if the entrance is too cold
  • install heat shields behind radiators
  • remove decorative grilles from batteries, if any
  • do not cover radiators with curtains
  • replace old radiators with new ones
  • to polish loggias and balconies
  • save electricity
  • save water

Adoption of these measures will save energy costs by 30-40% without any special costs without reducing the quality of life.

Who is the performer and where can you get the money

The management organization is responsible for the maintenance of the housing stock. Therefore, it is what is executing the work to improve energy efficiency in MKD. The source of funding is the payment made by the occupants of the house for the maintenance of the dwellings. Part of the work can be performed under a civil law contract.

The management organization has the right to pay the amount of costs of energy saving measures under the contract-contract in payments for the maintenance of residential premises, after having previously signed an agreement with the owners for the implementation of the work.

Overhaul programs under the Housing and Services Reform Promotion Fund (FRS) program undoubtedly include measures to improve energy efficiency and save energy on apartment blocks at the expense of the fund.

Low cost interventions in apartment buildings

A house that operates in energy saving mode consumes much less resources. Energy saving technologies can also be applied through low cost activities. To do this, follow:

  • Turn off the heating system
  • isolate street roads
  • install door locks
  • examine the heating system
  • install heat reflective shields behind radiators
  • install heat regulators that allow you to adjust the coolant temperature depending on the room air temperature

Energy efficiency measures in buildings that require large investments

Technical and large-scale events are expensive, but they greatly improve the energy efficiency of a building. These include:

  • installation of modern windows with high thermal resistance
  • installing new radiators
  • improvement of individual heating points
  • choice of energy efficient heating boilers
  • automation of the charging and operation process from the heating boiler
  • thermal insulation of common areas
  • execution of modern thermal insulation in pipes
  • installation of variable speed machine in water supply and drainage system
  • installing a variable frequency machine on pumping equipment
  • replacing old power grids with new ones

Efficient energy repair can significantly reduce energy consumption. In addition, it is recommended to regularly monitor and analyze new modern technologies that increase energy efficiency and, if possible, put them into practice. All these measures help to significantly save the amount of resources spent on the maintenance of residential buildings.