Today, in the modern world, energy conservation is an integral part of the life of a civilized society. This is health care, saving money and comfort for living.
But one of the most important (global) features of energy conservation is the protection of the environment from negative impacts.
Energy Saving Concept
The very concept of "energy saving" has been used for a long time. Today energy saving is characterized by a conceptual apparatus.
Energy saving is based on the energy source as an energy carrier that can be used in any activity. Energy saving is any activity that aims to reduce the use of energy resources without prejudging the main function of their use. Despite the extreme accuracy of the definitions, confusion often occurs in the concepts of "energy saving" and "energy efficiency". In this regard, the definition of the latter is given. Energy efficiency is a set of characteristics that reflect the ratio of the effect from the use of energy sources to the costs of the energy sources themselves. Energy saving efficiency is characterized, inter alia, by the energy efficiency class, which reflects the degree of usefulness of a product in terms of energy saving. To determine energy efficiency, special energy surveys are conducted.
Basic principles of energy saving
Now, defining the basic concepts in this field, it is worth reflecting on the basic principles of energy saving:
- Using alternative energy sources.
- Use of secondary energy sources.
- Application of non-energetic technologies and equipment.
- Taking measures for the rational use of available energy resources. Assess the economic feasibility of using technologies and energy saving solutions.
This list can be attributed to the principles of energy saving regulation and the main insulation approaches of a private home. The main thing to remember: energy saving includes not only additional ways of getting energy, but also activities to save available energy and its rational use.
Alternative energy sources
There is a lot of talk today about alternative energy sources. As a rule, we mean renewable energy sources. What is infinitely renewed on planet Earth? Of course, this is the water, the sun, the wind, the earth's crust. Of course, if you go into detail, then solar activity also changes over time, and the surface of the earth's crust becomes thinner, but all this is on the scale of the Universe. We are talking about renewal within the framework of our civilization - in the coming centuries, we believe, the Sun will not darken and the Earth will not fly out of its orbit.
Thus, the following energy sources are considered alternatives to oil, gas, coal and wood today:
- Solar Energy.Solar batteries and collectors are used to use such a source. The first are solar cells that directly direct solar energy into electricity. Solar collectors do not convert energy into electricity, but heat the coolant for its subsequent use (for example, for heating water in a private home).
- Wind energy.Windmills that generate electricity using wind turbines are very popular in Europe. For example, Germany already gets a third of its electricity using this renewable energy source.
- Water energy.This is not just about hydropower. Today, there are heat pumps that convert water heat into a lake or pool into sustainable water heaters for heating a home and supplying it with hot water.
- Earth energy.The heat pumps described above may also use groundwater or upper crust heat for public utilities. Such installations are very popular, as they do not require a water source or nearby wind: coolant can be placed in special pipes under the lawn, for example, or in wells in the garden area.
Secondary energy sources
Energy recycling is one of the basic principles of energy efficiency. Improving the efficiency of the ventilation and air conditioning system used in the building is only possible by recycling the exhaust air heat. This process of returning some of the heat that leaves the building (air is heated in the room by work equipment, people in the room) is called recovery. In this respect, energy saving is the activity of conserving energy available in the room.
The principle of operation of the recuperator is very simple - through certain platinum, which conducts heat well, the air drawn from the room heats the cold currents coming from the road, without mixing with it. As a result, not ice, but warm air 2-3 degrees enters the house, which contributes to a more comfortable microclimate in the room, and also allows you to save on heating, due to the increase in temperature in the room due towarm streams. The receivers are of the plate type, as described above, rotary (with a rotating element inside) and with an intermediate heat carrier. A large selection of salvage manufacturers allows you to choose a device for different environments and clients.
How to use municipal energy resources rationally?
Rational use of available resources includes not only the installation and operation of energy efficient equipment, but also compliance with a certain regime. Energy saving mode is a way of life in which energy saving is provided at the household level. If you set a goal - to save on utility bills, then you must first install equipment that, with the help of automation of power supply and metering, will allow you not to lose kilowatts. It should be chosen based on the sign confirming that this device or device provides energy savings. Increasing the optimization of resource utilization energy is possible only with the rational operation of all devices. Timely switching off of light in rooms where there are no people, careful attention to hot water loss and correct placement of automatic metering devices and consumption of heat and electricity in the house will allow to achieve significant results in savingenergy and personal money.
What is a passive house?
Energy efficiency and energy saving are inextricably linked to the concept of passive housing construction. It combines a range of energy saving measures, which together ensure low energy consumption. The history of passive house technology begins in the city of Darmstadt, where it was first developed by physicist Feist. Calculating the energy balance of the house gave him the idea of creating a building that would not need to be connected to heating even in winter - a passive house. At that time in Germany, houses consumed about 200 kWh / m² per year. On the other hand, the passive house needs only 10 kWh / m² per year in order to remain suitable and even comfortable to live all year round. The basic criterion for a passive house is the creation of a sealed building envelope with increased thermal insulation and low thermal conductivity. This is achieved through the use of heat-insulating materials that save energy, excluding the so-called cold bridges (places in the building envelope through which cold penetrates into the building: facade elements, window frames).
Evaluating the efficiency of the implementation of energy saving technologies
To bring the level of energy consumption in a building closer to the standard of a passive house, it is necessary to use materials with high heat resistance, modern engineering equipment, renewable and secondary energy sources, in a word, measures that ensure energy savings. At the same time, energy efficiency is calculated based on the costs incurred for a particular home innovation, and the effect that such a decision will bring to the owner. First, it is necessary to calculate the impact of new technology on the production and consumption of a particular type of resource. In this case, you should rate:
- Resource saving rate (difference between sources used by energy efficient and traditional equipment during the billing period when you generate the same amount of energy).
- Effect of power generation (difference or ratio of volumes of energy generated over a given period by comparing equipment options using the same amount of resources).
These indicators will give us an idea of the need to move on to calculating the economic effect. It is calculated by comparing the costs spent on purchasing new equipment (and possibly dismantling old equipment) and the revenue from energy savings when replacing a waste car with a more modern one (over a period of time). This change will be the effect that the owner will get after a certain period of time after applying the energy efficient solution. Usually the installation of recuperators or solar panels pays off in 3-5 years.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that saving energy is not just about saving money. First, is the concern for tomorrow, in which our children will live.