Technologies and methods of energy conservation. Help

Currently, the conservation of energy is one of the priorities. This is due to the lack of basic energy resources, the increase in the cost of its production, and global environmental problems.

energy saving

What is the conservation of energy?

Saving energy the efficient use of energy resources through the use of innovative solutions that are technically feasible, economically justified, and acceptable from environmental and social points of view, do not change a habitual way of life. This definition was formulated at the International energy conference.

Energy saving in each field is essentially reduced to reduce the loss of useless energy. Analysis of the losses in the production, distribution and consumption of electricity shows that most of the losses of up to 90% – are in terms of energy consumption, while the transmission losses of electricity account for only 9-10%. Therefore, the main efforts in saving is concentrated in the area of energy consumption.

The main role in the increase of the efficiency of energy use belongs to modern energy-saving technologies. Energy-saving new technology or advanced technological process, characterized by a greater efficiency of the use of fuel and energy resources (FER).

Introduction of energy saving technologies in the economic activity of the enterprises and the people in the family is an important step in the resolution of many environmental problems – climate change, pollution (for example, emissions of COGENERATION), depletion of resources, fossil, etc.

Normally, companies apply the following types of technologies that bring a great energy-saving effect:

  1. The common technology for many companies associated with the energy use (motors with variable speed, heat exchangers, compressed air, lighting, steam, cooling, drying, etc.).
  2. More efficient energy production, including a modern boiler houses, heat and electricity, but also heat, cold, electricity; replace old industrial equipment with new and more efficient.
  3. Alternative sources of energy.

Power saving Mode is particularly relevant for mechanisms that part-time work with a reduction of load – conveyors, pumps, fans, etc. There are many devices that allow to achieve the reduction of losses when operating electrical equipment, including capacitor Bank and variable frequency drives. Variable frequency drives with built-in features of power optimization flexible change of the frequency of rotation in function of the real burden, which saves up to 30% to 50% of the electricity consumed. This often does not require the replacement of the standard engine, which is especially important when upgrading facilities. These energy saving drives and automation can be implemented in most of the industrial companies and the real estate sector: from elevators and ventilation of the room in the company of automation.

Scientists have developed an installation in which part of the heat which passes to the pipe after burning in the production of natural gas is used to generate additional energy capable of lighting five buildings of 16 floors.

why conserve energy

Energy saving technologies in construction are complex, this includes wall insulation, energy efficient roofing, energy savings, paint, glass, economical heating and cooling of the surfaces.

One of the most common energy saving technologies with a great potential for improvement in the construction of housing of the boiler. Modern technology can significantly reduce energy consumption, reduce maintenance costs, the improvement of the efficiency. In addition, the replacement of the boiler often allows companies to switch from polluting and expensive coal or fuel oil to cheaper and cleaner fuels, such as gas or wood pellets.

It also gives a great saving if, instead of separate Central heating units to accommodate individual heating unit, equipped with modern noiseless pumps, compact and efficient plastic heat exchanger.

In the organization of ventilation in the building is used the system recovery (recycling for the reuse of the heat of the exhaust air and a variable flow ventilation units in function of the number of people in the building. These systems allow you to not lose the heat generated by people, lighting, commercial and office equipment, and in this way reduce the consumption of heat from external source – heating system or boiler.

An example of housing that will allow the person to live in harmony with nature, at the same time not depriving yourself of the usual comfort, the so-called casa zero energy (zero energy house) or passive house (passive house), which are grouped under the General term "energy efficiency of the house".

"Energy efficiency" would be a house in which a comfortable temperature in winter without heating system and in summer without using the air conditioning system.

The house was efficient in its construction, must do the following:

  1. Application of modern thermal insulation of pipelines of heating and hot water.
  2. Individual source of heating and energy supply (boiler, single or cogeneration source of energy).
  3. Heat pumps that use the earth, the heat, the heat of the exhaust ventilation air and the heat of the wastewater.
  4. Solar panels for the hot water supply system and the cooling system of the room.
  5. The heating system in each apartment with heat meters and individual regulation of the thermal regime of the facilities.
  6. A system of mechanical exhaust ventilation with individually adjustable and heat recovery of exhaust air.
  7. Each apartment has a controller that optimizes the heat consumption for heating and ventilation of dwellings.
  8. Walling with high thermal protection standards and heat-tolerance.
  9. The residual heat of solar radiation and heat balance of a building based on the optimal choice of translucent enclosing structures.
  10. Devices that use scattered solar radiation to improve the lighting and reduce energy consumption for lighting.
  11. Selection of designs, shade devices according to the orientation and irradiance of fronts every season.
  12. Use of heat from the return water of heating system with underfloor heating in the bathrooms.
  13. Control system of the heat and power supply, microclimate of premises and engineering equipment of the building on the basis of mathematical model building as a single energy system.

There are other ways to optimize the use of electricity, not only in production but also in everyday life. Therefore, the already long-known "smart" lighting system. Energy-saving effect, based on the fact that the light automatically turns on when you need it. The switch has an optical sensor and a microphone. A day at high light levels, the lighting is off. At dusk, the activation of the microphone. If the radius of 5 m of noise (for example, footsteps or the sound of a door opening), the light automatically comes and stays until the person who is in the room. This type of lighting systems with energy saving lamps.

Led lights allows you to achieve significant energy savings compared with traditional light sources incandescent lamps (80%) and fluorescent tubes (over 40%). These lamps can be used in the lighting of various objects: pedestrians, underpasses and car parks, garden and Park lighting, lighting, lighting in the home and emergency lighting.

as to conservation of energy

There are promising energy conservation projects in the transport sector. American engineers was close to the production of passenger cars, equipped with attachments that convert exhaust heat into electricity. The generator, mounted on the silencer that converts exhaust heat into electricity, which can ensure the operation of the climate control systems, music systems, etc.

German scientists develop highly efficient energy-saving devices required for vehicles with engines hybrids. The device works by the use of petroleum on the freeway and by electricity in the city, therefore, with comparatively less energy.

In my house each user can save energy by adhering to the following rules:

  1. Replace incandescent bulbs with modern energy saving lamps.
  2. To turn off unused appliances (e.g., TV, VIDEO, stereo).
  3. The electric plates for the use of each dish with a bottom, which is equal to or exceeds slightly the diameter of the burner, do not use a pan with a curved bottom.
  4. Washable in the washing machine with a full load and select a wash cycle.
  5. Keep an electric kettle a boiler scale.
  6. Do not dry the clothes bad, that save when Ironing.
  7. Frequency of change of bags to collect the dust at certain times.
  8. Put in the refrigerator in the most cool place of kitchen.
  9. Use light curtains, wallpaper.
  10. Frequency of washing of the window, in the frames of the windows to put a small number of colors.
  11. Do not close the blackout curtains and radiators.