Energy saving methods

Consumers are driven by rising energy prices and environmental considerations to save electricity. Consumers may think of the environment as a fad or a hoax, but if it translates into an additional cost, then it must be calculated.

Of course, energy will not go anywhere, its consumption will increase, the number of resources will increase and the most harmful ones will be replaced. Savings do not mean limitation, but wise use. You can economically spend a hundred kilowatts and lose a hundred watts.

The saving of electricity is achieved by a reasonable (not disorderly) organization of its use, this is the result of planning activities. And the charlatan devices and "methods" advertised on the Internet sometimes have nothing to do with saving. These methods can only cause fire and electric shock.

Down energy consumers

All electricity consumers can be classified in some way according to the amount of energy consumed (energy intensity). For example, in this order, in descending order:

  • Heating equipment;
  • Lighting equipment;
  • electric motors;
  • Computer Science;
  • Electronic and communication equipment.

Even at the household level, this classification is reasonable: above all electricity is consumed by boilers, stoves of various types - grill, toaster, electric stoves, then irons, dryers. Plenty of energy is expended for lighting purposes. Lighting competes with refrigerators (compressor motor).

An ordinary home PC also consumes a lot, it is quite a competitor of the refrigerator. Against this background, TVs, security and fire alarms and chargers for mobile communication devices consume less.

Converting electricity to heat is the most "visible" result that can be obtained, but it is also obtained with full efficiency. if such a conversion is required. The efficiency of iron is almost 100%. For light sources, things are much worse - even for LED lamps, the efficiency is close to only 15% (we can talk about proximity up to 100% only for quantum phenomena in a semiconductor crystal of LEDs, the rest is spent onheating wires and losses in additional equipment: conductors).

Savings in heating equipment

How to save energy without denying yourself the benefits of civilization? Since, as we can see, heating appliances “get electricity” above all, this is the most important source for saving. For them, energy saving methods in everyday life are indirect, but no less important. First of all, the heat must be fully utilized. For example, it is extremely wise to boil water in a metal tank in a cold room that does not need to be heated. It is better to do this where the heat will spread through residential neighborhoods.

The resulting heat must be maintained completely and for as long as possible due to good thermal insulation of the premises. In European countries, for example, in Germany, they are even fined for poor isolation.

With a multi-tariff charge for energy and the ability to store heat, overnight operation of water heaters and other heating appliances will be more convenient. During the day, the heat will remain at a sufficient level. This is especially useful if residents are at work or studying during the day. In addition, by spending energy at night, consumers equalize the load on the power grid, which has a positive effect on its service and operating costs. This allows us to hope for cheaper rates.

Lighting savings

ways to save electricity on lighting

Let’s start with a reminder to remember to turn off the lights where they are not needed. And think carefully about the location of light sources (preferably with the help of professionals in this matter) in all rooms, even if they are utility rooms. Then we turn to the light sources that exist in our time.

First of all, it should be noted that we live in a fertile time of rejection of gluten-free incandescent bulbs, which heat more than they glow. Extensive use of fluorescent light sources (daylight) gives a very significant energy saving, two to three times.

Fluorescent lamps made in the form of 40 and 80 W tubes have been prevalent before (since the 70s of last century), but mainly in public and industrial buildings.

Modern "energy-saving" household fluorescent lamps on the E27 base are the same mercury and phosphor vapor tubes from the inner surface of the glass. But they are twisted into a round spiral and connected through a miniature electronic ballast placed at the base and performing the same functions as the iron choke and gas discharge starter previously performed.

But fluorescent lamps are already being assembled by LED lamps, which consume two to three times less energy than fluorescent lamps in the same luminous flux. They are still somewhat more expensive than other types of lamps, but the market is not yet saturated with new products. Costs are quickly reimbursed due to significant savings from their use.

Both fluorescent and LED lamps have a very wide spectrum that is close to daylight. This is due to the use of a primary ultraviolet source in both cases - LED lamps also use illumination and the ultraviolet light is converted into a mixture of all colors of visible light. Only in LED lamps, ultraviolet light is not generated by mercury vapor atoms, but by a semiconductor crystal.

Additional ways to save energy when solving lighting problems are switching on and off automation. The person is forgetful, but the technique is not. The use of dimmers (light control devices), photo relays, timers and motion sensors will minimize unnecessary light costs.

All of these products are available in stores, sold with warranties, certificates, and instructions, and have long ceased to be the exclusive handicraft available only to qualified radio amateurs who make them for their home.

Electric motors

Electric motors are found in everyday life mainly in refrigerators, washing machines and air conditioners. There are also pumps for heating systems and pumps for wells. All other cases: coffee grinder, drill, and so on do not deserve attention, as they are turned on infrequently and for a short time.

Reduction of energy consumption in case of continuous operation of electric motors is achieved either by their periodic shutdown (refrigerators and air conditioners), or by using frequency converters for asynchronous motors.

The latter are sometimes used to control pump motors for water supply and heating systems. Since the operation of electric motors is usually accompanied by heat (cooling), the saving measures are reduced to the fact that there are fewer reasons to start the motors: keep the doors closed, vents, refrigerators and freezers.

The power consumed by electric motors in daily life is relatively small - about a few hundred or even tens of watts, you can ignore the infamous "kosinus phi" here, as the home consumer does not pay for reactive power.

However, asynchronous motors have one feature: a large starting current, 5-7 times higher than the rated one. This suggests that the less often such motors are started, the better and justifies the use of frequency drivers, where they are acceptable (cases of refrigerators, in particular, air conditioners, do not apply to this). And do not put hot pots in the refrigerator.

Electric motors used in household appliances can be classified according to power and duty cycle (fraction of time in a duty cycle) as follows:

  • Refrigerators, air conditioners (150-450 W, 20-50%);
  • Heat pumps (60–200 W, 40–100%);
  • Kitchen appliances (50-500 W, short term);
  • Fans (10-30 W, up to 100%).

Underwater water pumps are rarely used and have considerable power. They are used in individual homes and homes for wealthy owners. But even there, economic issues are not in last place. Therefore, the operation of pumps in such systems is optimized by hydraulic accumulators, frequency converters and controllers that control the operation of the water supply. Everything happens automatically.

Computers, TV & Phone Chargers

energy saving methods

Gaming PCs are able to wrap the counters well not only because of the fast processor, but also because of the powerful video card that works 20 hours a day (game time flies fast and starting asa school can not notice how the pension came). . . Some people also use video cards to make money.

A typical office computer in quiet mode consumes about 200 W, a laptop - 40-60 W. This is comparable to a TV and not so significant. Despite this, it does not harm the power supply management of such devices, especially since such capabilities have long been provided in modern intelligent electronics.

As for chargers for phones and other mobile devices, they can be powered by "alternative" energy sources: solar panels and small wind turbines powered by the right converters (including, of course, 5, 12 and20 The latter VDCK can be used to charge laptops. )

Alternative resources in everyday life are not yet widespread, their capacity is very modest and high price. However, one has to start somewhere and the tips for saving energy in daily life should also take this bit into account.